This glossary defines some common terms used for ABE/ESL programs; it was developed as a training resource for instructors and tutors who are new to teaching adults. Specific notes on Nevada’s policies appear in green. More extensive glossaries can be found at www.literacynet.org/lincs/glossary.html and at www.otan.us (click on research and reference).
Adult education that includes reading, writing, and math skills at a level below high school completion. Often, these classes include speakers of other languages who have advanced beyond ESL or ESOL classes. World Education, November 2000.
Note: In practice, people frequently use the term “ABE program” to indicate programs that provide classes and services to adult ABE and ESL students.
For purposes of federal reporting, the NRS (National Reporting System) defines six educational functioning levels for ABE —beginning literacy, beginning basic education, low intermediate basic education, high intermediate basic education, low adult secondary education, and high adult secondary education. Each level describes a set of skills and competencies in reading, writing, numeracy, functional and workplace areas. At
CASAS Skill Level Descriptors for ABE is a description of the skills for each level for programs using the CASAS system. NRS
A Certificate awarded to Nevada’s instructors and tutors to recognize competence and performance in the ABE/ESL classroom. The Certificate is based on demonstrated proficiency in achieving outcomes in support of the Nevada State Plan and/or individual federally funded program grant objectives. See ABE Certificate of Performance for more information.
Adult education programs federally funded through the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act.
Used by AEFLA-funded programs for federal reporting through the NRS, refers to the two highest levels in adult basic education programs. ASE students are frequently working toward passing the GED Tests.
A process that links two or more educational systems such as a pathway of high school courses to college courses. Its intention is to provide a seamless transition to postsecondary education. CALPRO
An expected level of content mastery and/or performance; usually includes a time element.
Career and College Pathway Services are defined as integrated adult education services and postsecondary education and/or training content or [services] which dually or concurrently enroll students in adult education services and postsecondary education and training that lead to industry-based certification or institutionally-granted certification, diplomas, or degrees necessary for high demand jobs. NAEPDC/NCL
Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System. A competency-based system that is used for placement and measurement of individual student progress. All AEFLA-funded programs in Nevada must use CASAS for assessing their ABE and ESL students. www.casas.org/
A list of 300-plus competencies that cover nine content areas: basic communication, consumer economics, community resources, health, employment, government and law, computation, learning to learn, and independent living skills. These competencies have been correlated to the SCANS (Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills) competencies that were identified by the U.S. Department of Labor to help learners and instructors apply teaching and learning in a "real world context." CASAS
The degree to which individuals are familiar with computer operating systems and applications. http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/readinessguide/glossary.html
Clear statements of what students should know and be able to do at specific points as they move through the educational spectrum. See Nevada’s Adult Education Content Standards for AEFLA-funded programs. A Blueprint for Preparing America’s Future (USDOE, 2003)
Hours of instruction or instructional activity the student receives from the program. Instructional activity includes any program-sponsored activity designed to promote student learning in the program curriculum such as classroom instruction, assessment, tutoring, or (supervised) participation in a learning lab.
(often used interchangeably with core indicators)
Required outcome, descriptive, and participation measures that reflect the core indicator requirements of the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act. States must report the required measures on all students who receive 12 hours or more of service. The Department of Education will use these measures to judge program performance, including eligibility for incentive grants.
The characteristics of human populations and population segments, e.g., age, race, sex, etc.
A developmental disability is a severe, chronic disability in an individual five years of age or older that:
See "Service to Learners with Special Needs ..." for guidelines on Service To Learners With Special Needs, Learning Disabilities, and Developmental Disabilities.
Formal learning activity where students and instructors are separated by geography, time or both for the majority of the instructional period. Distance learning materials are delivered through a variety of media including, but not limited to, print, audio recording, videotape, broadcasts, computer software, web-based programs and other online technology. Teachers support distance learners through communication via mail, telephone, e-mail or online technologies and software. NRS 6/07
One of 12 levels (six for ABE and six for ESL) at which a student is performing. Each level describes student performance in areas such as listening, speaking, reading, writing, numeracy, functional skills, and the workplace. Nevada uses a student’s initial CASAS assessment to determine the student’s educational functioning level for placement in the appropriate class. Advancement among levels defines student progress or educational gain.You can find descriptions of each level at:
Learner completes or advances one or more educational functioning levels from starting level measured on entry into the program. Applicable population: all learners. NRS
A CASAS pre-employment training system that assesses job readiness and performance ability, this system provides assessment, training, and evaluation based on critical competencies and skill areas required for success in the workplace. ECS provides a structure in which learners’ strengths and weaknesses are assessed in relation to the basic skills necessary to obtain, retrain or advance in a job. These competencies and skill areas directly correlate to those established by the U.S, Department of Labor’s Secretary’s Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS). The commission developed the standard for skills and abilities all individuals need in order to function successfully in our modern workplace and society. Workforce Learning Systems, Center for Workforce Development, CASAS
Learner obtains a job before the end of the first quarter after the program exit quarter. Applicable population: Learners who are not employed at time of entry and who have a main or secondary goal of obtaining employment. NRS
Instruction for immigrants, refugees, or other adults whose primary language is not English to improve speaking, reading, and writing skills in English. (World Education, November 2000)
Note: According to NCLE, the politically correct term is English Language Learners.
For purposes of federal reporting, the NRS (National Reporting System) defines six educational functioning levels for ESL —beginning literacy, low beginning, high beginning, low intermediate, high intermediate, and advanced. Each level describes a set of skills and competencies in reading, writing, speaking, listening, functional and workplace areas. At CASAS Skill Level Descriptors for ESL is a description of the skills for each level for programs using the CASAS system. NRS
Literacy programs developed, operated, and supported by religious organizations, churches, synagogues, mosques, and ministries.
Services that are of sufficient intensity in terms of hours, and of sufficient duration, to make sustainable changes in a family and that integrate all of the following activities:
The ability to effectively understand and manage one’s personal finances.
The degree to which people can obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services they need to make appropriate health decisions. National Library of Medicine’s bibliography on health literacy, “Health Literacy Toolbox,” 2000
An observable comparison of content mastery and/or performance to a given standard.
A general term that refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders manifested by significant difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities. These disorders are intrinsic to the individual, presumed to be due to central nervous system dysfunction, and may occur across the life span. Problems in self-regulatory behaviors, social perception, and social interaction may exist with learning disabilities but do not by themselves constitute a learning disability. Although learning disabilities may occur concomitantly with other handicapping conditions (for example, sensory impairment, mental retardation, serious emotional disturbance) or with extrinsic influences (such as cultural differences, insufficient or inappropriate instruction), they are not the result of those conditions or influences.National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities, 1994. Definition also adopted by National Adult Literacy and Learning Disabilities Center
An individual’s ability to read, write, and speak in English, compute, and solve problems at levels of proficiency necessary to function on the job, in the family of the individual, and in society. Workforce Investment Act (WIA) 1998
Adult literacy programs developed, operated, and supported by public libraries or in partnership with public libraries. NevadaLiteracy Office
The terms "mathematical literacy" and "numeracy" are used interchangeably. Both terms should be viewed as loosely referring to the aggregate of skills, knowledge, beliefs, patterns of thinking, and related communicative and problem-solving processes individuals need to effectively interpret and handle real-world quantitative situations, problems, and tasks. Adult Numeracy Network
The ability to understand how mass media work, how they produce meanings, how they are organized, and how to use them wisely. The Media Center
An outcome-based reporting system for the state-administered, federally funded adult education programs. NRS, http://www.nrsweb.org/
The ability to apply mathematical reasoning to tasks that must be solved in order to perform adequately in work and in daily life.
(often used interchangeably with performance indicators)
Adults staying in programs for as long as they can, engaging in self-directed study or distance education when they must stop attending program services, and returning to program services as soon as the demands of their lives allow. NCSALL
(Required Core Outcome Measure)
Learner enrolls in a post-secondary educational or occupational skills training program that does not duplicate other services or training received, regardless of whether the prior services or training were completed. Applicable population: All learners with a goal of placement in post-secondary education or training.
Statements that describe what efficient and effective performance “looks like” in Nevada, with specifications for expected levels of content mastery and/or performance. Categories include student outcomes, data management, program management, community interaction and outreach, curriculum and instruction, retention, program evaluation, and professional development.
(Required Core Outcome Measure)
Learner remains employed in the third quarter after exit quarter. Applicable population: Learners who, at time of entry were not employed and had a main or secondary goal of obtaining employment, and who entered employment by the first quarter after exit quarter; or learner is employed at entry and has a primary or secondary goal of improved or retained employment. NRS
(Required Core Outcome Measure)
Learner obtains certification of attaining passing scores on the General Education Development (GED) tests, or who obtains a diploma, or state recognized equivalent, documenting satisfactory completion of secondary studies (high school or adult high school diploma). Applicable population: All learners with a main or secondary goal of passing the GED tests or obtaining a secondary school diploma or its recognized equivalent. NRS
There are many definitions and ways of calculating retention. The most common definition is: Students continue in the program until student goals are met or until the course of study is completed. As a result of recent NCSALL research, the term “persistence” is replacing “retention” because it places the student in a position of control and decision-making — “A student persists in learning; a program retains a student.”
NevadaPolicy: When calculating retention for the purpose of qualifying for the Adult Basic Educator’s Certificate of Performance, Nevada measures student retention in light of time spent in a program.
Retention is calculated as follows: Number of students post-tested divided by number of students pre-tested. Test scores must be paired.
For numerator: Count only students post-tested within 30-120 hours of instruction.
For denominator: Count all pre-tested students who have 12 or more hours of instruction.
See Core Measures
A broad term that incorporates the need for some type of accommodation. For example, students with special needs may have a physical disability (e.g., sight or hearing), a learning disability (e.g., dyslexia, dyscalculia, processing or memory problems), or a developmental disability (e.g., mental retardation, autism, Down Syndrome, or Cerebral Palsy).
The specification of a desired level of content mastery and/or performance. Adapted from “education standard” definition by Tuijnman & Postlethwaite, 1994, p.2
Tracking Of Programs and Students. A software database system designed to score and manage CASAS test data in conjunction with a local management information system. Along with scoring and tracking students’ CASAS test results, it also collects student demographics, tracks results in programs, scores tests, tracks progress, and generates reports at the student, class, and agency level. TOPSpro generates numerous reports that can be printed and distributed throughout the agency to serve a variety of program needs. All AEFLA-funded programs in Nevada must TOPSpro for reporting to the NRS. www.casas.org, under “products and services”
Community-based organizations that develop, operate, and support adult literacy tutoring. NevadaLiteracy Office
Definitions below taken from Basic Skills in the Workplace, Northwest Regional Literacy Resource Center, March 1997
Several working definitions are used that sometimes contradict each other.Some are narrow and include only reading, writing, math, oral communication and problem solving. Others are broader and may include any of the following: oral communication, reading, writing, computation, math, problem-solving, analytical thinking, the ability to maintain self-esteem, the ability to self-manage, interpersonal and intercultural skills, the ability to self-direct learning and the ability to adapt to change, etc. The terms workplace basic skills and workplace literacy skills are often used interchangeably.